The Supreme Court has repeatedly upheld restrictions on young women's access to abortion. Forty-four states have passed laws requiring either parental notification or parental consent.
In Bellotti v. Baird (1979), the Court ruled that if states require minors to obtain parental consent, they must provide an alternative procedure to obtain authorization if the parents deny consent or if the minor does not want to ask it.
The Court upheld parental consent requirements in the 1983 case Planned Parenthood Association of Kansas City, Missouri Inc. v. Ashcroft because of its judicial bypass option.
In the 1989 case of Hodgson v. Minnesota, the Court ruled that a state law requiring notice be given to both parents is unconstitutional without a judicial bypass procedure.
In 1990, the Court ruled in Ohio v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health that a state law requiring notice to one parent with a judicial bypass option is constitutional.